A repeat pattern that
fully covers the field of a rug.
To protect the back of hooked rugs, heavy fabric
is secured with latex glue. Also called a "scrim
WOOL - The wool fibers have been opened,
cleaned, aligned and formed into a continuous,
untwisted strand yarn (called a sliver). Carded
wool has a larger and coarser denier than worsted
- Handheld carving tools are used to accentuate
details of hooked, tufted and hand knotted rugs,
or to create a 3-D effect on solid color rugs.
BRAID - Fabric is first woven, then cut
into strips which are braided.
- This refers to when areas of a rug's foundation
show between hooked stitches. The rug design
is worked in a crescent pattern rather than
straight rows to discourage this.
- A fabric treatment which washes the shine
from the yarn, producing a softer overall appearance
in an Oriental rug.
- The part of a rug's design surrounded by the
border. The field may be solid or contain medallions,
or an overall pattern.
braided rug produced with yarns that are
two parallel cores.
- A tapestry-like flatwoven rug
- Each yarn is knotted through the back of an
Oriental rug. The number of knots per square
inch is a quality factor in an Oriental rug.
- Acrylic yarns that have been modified for
added quality and to resist fire.
HEIGHT - The height of the face yarns from
the backing to the tip of the piece of yarn.
- One or more yarns are twisted together to
form a larger piece of yarn. Ply counts the
number of individual yarn pieces comprising
NEEDLEPOINT - Woven on computerized looms
programmed to imitate the handmade needlepoint
rugs of Portugal, these rugs have jute backs
and are not reversible. Also called Spanish
two-ply yarns are braided to make a tape,
tapes are braided around two parallel guide
- Forming the backbone
of a rug, warp yarns are attached to a loom
and run the length of a rug.
Yarns that are woven horizontally across the
warp of a rug.
LOOM - Automated
looms popular for producing authentic Oriental
- A design of intertwining vines, flowers and
leaves common to Persian rugs.
- A change in the shade of a color within a rug
which usually appears in a horizontal line.
A style of braided rug
in which wide bands of solid or variegated
braid form a
predetermined pattern which is consistent
from rug to rug.
- A colored drawing on graph paper that a weaver
follows to craft a rug design.
- A generic name describing boldly colored geometric
designs originating from the Caucasus Mountains
in Southern Russia.
DYES - A quality feature because these synthetic
dyes use potassium bichromate to form a permanent
bond between the dye and the rug's fiber.
- This refers to a rug woven horizontally on a
Wilton loom as opposed to vertically, which is
more common. This allows more colors to be used,
and the rugs are more pliable than standard Wilton
- In reference to yarn size, the lower the denier,
the smaller the yarn size; the higher the denier,
the larger the yarn size.
- This measure of quality in a rug is determined
by the amount of yarn and the pile height in a
given area of the rug.
- The combination of warps and wefts in the body
of a rug
- This glue is used to secure a heavy cloth backing
to hooked rugs, and to secure face yarns. Latex
backed rugs must not be cleaned using petroleum
a design has a large enclosed portion, usually
in the center, it is called the medallion
shapes are circles, diamonds, octagons and
- A synthetic fiber that is colorfast, mold and
mildew resistant, with excellent wearability and
is easily cleaned.
- During initial use of a braided rug, excess
sprouts of yarn may work their way to the surface
of the rug. These sprouts should be clipped off
at the base with scissors.
TUBULAR BRAID - Yarns
are woven in a circular fashion and surround a
core of miscellaneous fibers.
Natural dyes produced
berries roots and bark. They
are not as colorfast as chrome dyes.
LOOM - The popular
choice for duplicating antique oriental rug designs,
particularly Caucasian geometrics, because of
the flexibility in color and design.
- The design which forms the outside edge of a
rug and surrounds the field.
RUG - This rug will have a solid or patterned
border surrounding a solid color field.
RUG - Yarn or fabric is braided to form a
continuous rope or braid which is sewn in a spiral
to form a reversible rug.
WASH - Produces an overall lustre by reacting
to the dye stuffs in the design and by removing
short staple yarns from the face of the rug.
CENTER BRAID - The center of each rug is of
a predetermined color and design, while the rest
of the rug is variegated.
PILE - After the yarn is pushed through the
canvas in the hooking technique, the loops formed
by the yarn are but to leave an open pile.
Called a flatwoven
rug, dhurries are usually made of cotton or
India using the warp-sharing, kelim method.
RUG - Yarns are
pushed through the back of a canvas cloth and
pulled back through to form a design.
COUNT - The number of horizontal knots in
a linear foot.
HOOKED - A type of hooked rug where the loops
formed by the yarn are left uncut.
- Part of the finishing process, colors are separated
to add clarity and straighten lines of color,
such as in the border.
- The surface of the rug, it is sometimes called
the "nap" or "face."
RUGS - Solid or multi-colored pile rugs on
which a design has been stenciled.
- The average length of fibers in a piece of yarn.
KNOT - A knot tied over two warps; a Giordes
or Turkish knot.
- A form of hooking, yarns are pushed through
the foundation of a rug with an electric tufting
gun to form a pattern.
- Before wool is spun into yarn, it is combed,
then worsted to improve its quality by leaving
only the longer pieces of fiber for final spinning.
It is used for more intricate patterns.
BRAID - A braided rug made from several 3-ply